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  • Twycross R and Wilcock A. Symptom Management in Advanced Cancer. 3rd edition. Radcliffe Medical Press, Oxford. 2002. Chapter 12 Therapeutic emergencies pp 369-371.
  • Furst CJ and Doyle D. The terminal phase. Pp 1119-1133. In: Doyle D, Hanks G, Cherny N and Calman K. (editors) Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, New York. 2005.
  • Bennett M et al. Using anti-muscarinic drugs in the management of death rattle: evidence-based guidelines for palliative care. Palliative Medicine, 2002, 16:369-374.
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  • Diabetes UK (Accessed June 2016).


This Guide is intended for use by healthcare professionals and the expectation is that they will use clinical judgement, medical, and nursing knowledge in applying the general principles and recommendations contained within. They are not meant to replace the many available texts on the subject of palliative care.
Some of the management strategies describe the use of drugs outside their licensed indications. They are, however, established and accepted good practice. Please refer to the current BNF for further guidance.
While WMPCPS takes every care to compile accurate information , we cannot guarantee its correctness and completeness and it is subject to change. We do not accept responsibility for any loss, damage or expense resulting from the use of this information.