1. Identify the cause of constipation.
Constipation should be anticipated in all patients:
- Taking opioids (Opioid Induced Constipation) or anticholinergics (e.g. tricyclic antidepressants, cyclizine, etc.).
- Those who are either inactive or have a reduced fluid or dietary fibre intake.
- Lack of privacy and pain may be contributing factors.
- At risk of hypercalcaemia which could be treated.
- Bowel obstruction should be considered and if clinically suspected further advice sought.